Navigation Systems

Navigation Systems Radio navigation systems (navaids) provide the following navigation information to the aircraft equipped with adequate devices:
  • distance from the reference point (Distance Measuring Equipment - DME),
  • azimuth of aircraft position relative to the reference position (VHF Omnidirectional Radio Range - VOR),
  • aircraft heading relative to direction towards the reference point (Non-Directional Beacon/Locator - NDB/L),
  • determining the position of aircraft in the airspace (VOR/DME system or simultaneous use of multiple DME systems).
  These systems are installed throughout the country in order to ensure the safe implementation of:
  • conventional and RNAV (Area Navigation) en-route navigation (VOR/DME, DME-DME, NDB),
  • approach and departure procedures (VOR/DME, NDB, L),
  • non-precision instrumental approach and landing procedures (NDB/L),
  • missed approach procedures (VOR/DME, NDB).
For the purpose of precision instrument landing, the ILS system (Instrument Landing System) is used. ILS systems of particular categories (CAT I/II/III) enable the operations at the airports in the conditions of low and even very low visibility. All airports of primary importance are equipped with ILS, VOR, DME and NDB systems.

The accurate operation and high availability of air navigation systems is accomplished by adequate maintenance and monitoring of the systems performed by the experts from the Technical Division.
Within the frame of preventive maintenance, periodic flight checks and calibration of navigation systems are performed, and their performance is verified according to relevant regulations (ICAO Annex 10, ICAO Doc. 8071).

In line with the international trends and the development of technology, the implementation of navigation procedures based on satellite systems can be expected in the near future (Space-Based Augmentation System - SBAS and Ground-Based Augmentation System - GBAS), which will bring certain changes in navigation infrastructure.